Monday, October 16, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

Do you remember what you were doing at 8:41 a.m. EDT August 17, 2017? 

At that moment two Gravitational Wave Observatories in the U.S. called LIGO   were detecting a ripple in space time caused by gravitational waves. LIGO had already discovered several black hole mergers  but this signal was far different in that it lasted 100 seconds and indicated a merger of two less massive objects had occurred. 

LIGO had just detected the merger of two neutron stars   

This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue).
Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab
Two seconds after LIGO’s gravitational wave detection NASA’s space based Fermi Gamma Ray Telescope     and shortly thereafter the European Space Agency’s INTEGRAL spacecraft also observed gamma rays. 

An alert went out to the worldwide astronomical community. Teams of astronomers scrambled to try and find the source of the gamma rays thought to be associated with the gravitational waves. A team of four Carnegie astronomers  
along with colleagues at UC Santa Cruz   used the Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory to be the first to discover the light produced by the merger.

This was the first-ever glimpse in visible light of two neutron stars colliding and pinpointed the origin of the gravitational wave signal less than 11 hours after it was detected by LIGO.  This team also obtained the earliest spectra - or chemical fingerprints - of the merger, which will help astronomers explain how many of the universe’s heavy elements were created.

Their observations and others using the Italy based VIRGO gravitational wave observatory, 70 telescopes both space and ground based, 100 instruments and thousands of astronomers and physicists resulted in the birth of “Multi-Messenger Astronomy”.

For the first time ever observation of gravitational waves and light across the entire electromagnetic spectrum had been conducted. The source of this neutron star merger was in a galaxy called NGC 4993 located 130 million light years from Earth in the southern constellation Hydra  .

These two neutron stars were created by two supernovas    just two billion years after the Big Bang   and had been orbiting each other for eleven billion years. They were only 200 miles apart when 100 seconds later they merged to emit gravitational waves and create a Kilonova    that was 200 million times the brightness of the Sun.  

During the media telecon sponsored by the National Science Foundation I asked if astronomers knew what the new object was resulting from the merger and subsequent kilonova. The panel responded that, “No firm knowledge of the end state (yet) but X-ray observations suggest it should be a very light mass black hole or the most massive neutron star. More observations will help us determine the answer”.

What astronomers do know is that the kilonova produced heavy elements, especially gold, platinum, uranium. Stars during their lives and deaths manufacture all of the natural elements we see on the Periodic Table of Elements other than Hydrogen which was created by the Big Bang. This process, called nucleosynthesis   continuously seeds the Universe with the elements necessary to create planets and life. 

According to Dr. Edo Berger, an astronomer at Harvard University and part of today’s panel, the observed kilonova showed “The direct fingerprints of the (creation of) heavy elements for the first time ever, producing 16,000 times the mass of the Earth in heavy elements and tens of times the mass of the Earth in gold and platinum”.

This groundbreaking discovery was made possible by the 30-plus years of LIGO-gravitational wave funding provided by NSF. Dr. Frances Cordova, NSF’s Director, was kind enough to respond to my email questions about this discovery.

As an astrophysicist, what are your personal feelings about this discovery? 
An as astrophysicist and director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), I couldn’t be more excited knowing that on any given day a wondrous discovery is waiting to be found. Each discovery is unique and serves as a beacon to keep searching, to keep seeking, and for NSF, to keep investing in fundamental research. One of my early engagements as a young astronomer was to further multiwavelength astronomy, or linking together telescopes around the world and in space to observe transient phenomena. This was the same theme as today's announcement, but there weren’t gravitational waves then. We had no idea at that time how much more information could be derived by opening the gravitational wave window on the universe.

As a follow up, what is the scientific significance of this discovery?
This discovery is the first verification of a "kilonova" explosion, confirming binary neutron star collisions as one source for the universe's heaviest elements, such as gold and uranium. The fact that we can still learn about the universe is worth its weight in gold, or should I say uranium. It is also confirmation that binary neutron star infall is one way to produce short gamma-ray bursts, whose origin has been a mystery. 

The significance for the National Science Foundation is LIGO demonstrates the value of funding basic research by doing extraordinarily hard engineering projects that can have profound implications for our understanding of the nature and evolution of the universe. LIGO is one of the largest experiments the agency has ever funded and researchers at NSF's twin LIGO detectors and the Virgo detector located GW170817 with unprecedented precision, allowing telescopes on the ground and in space to rapidly turn their attention towards the area of sky where the neutron stars collided.

What do you think will be the "Next Big Discovery" in Gravitational Wave Astronomy?
Not sure! Could be witnessing gravitational waves from supernovae, or the imprint of gravitational waves on the microwave background formed during a very early epoch in the formation of our universe. We didn't know what the first results would be from LIGO, and we can't truly foresee what the next results from this or other gravitational wave experiments operating at different frequencies will be. That's the whole point of fundamental research -- it can lead to new and surprising results that transform our understanding of nature and the cosmos. 

What is the future role of the NSF as to LIGO/Gravitational Wave Astronomy?
This was the first event in a new era of "multi-messenger" observations, a new window on the universe.  Moving forward, LIGO-VIRGO will be making many more observations.  With multi-messenger astronomy, scientists will observe the most powerful events in the universe from the first gravitational-wave pulse to the cascade of particles and electromagnetic energy that streams toward Earth, offering new and more complete insights into nature's biggest explosions. The role of NSF is to keep moving ahead to increase the volume of the universe sampled, and hence the number and perhaps kinds of sources detected; this can be done by steadily increasing the sensitivity of the gravitational wave facilities. 

This was a fortuitous discovery as the LIGO observatories were due to be shut down for a year to undergo major upgrades in sensitivity that will greatly expand their capabilities. Not only that, but just nine days later the Sun would have blocked the signal.

Observations will continue and more science papers will be written about this historic event. But as explained by Dr. Cordova the future is bright for “Multi-Messenger Astronomy” - all you have to do is look at whatever gold you own for proof.

I can hardly wait.

Sky Guy in VA

Friday, October 13, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

This coming Monday, October 16, there will be a HUGE announcement made by the Gravitational Wave Astronomy community.

I have been provided advance notice of the announcement by those involved but it is embargoed until Monday, which of course I am honoring.

I will have this exciting news available for you as soon as the embargo ends which will be after 10 am EDT. I will be participating in the media telecon so I expect to have a blog out after it concludes.

Sky Guy in VA


Hey Space Placers!

Want to know what NASA's "Top 10" (my word, not theirs) upcoming missions for space exploration are?

InSight, JWST, Orion-SLS
Read all about these very exciting missions.

We will definitely have some very, very exciting discoveries and mysteries in the tears ahead.

I can hardly wait to share them with you.

Sky Guy in VA

Thursday, October 12, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

Here is the latest on NASA's efforts regarding protection of astronauts in space.

This is a difficult problem that has to be solved before we venture into space beyond the Earth's protective magnetic field.

Sky Guy in VA

Wednesday, October 11, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

We will have a close call from an asteroid tonight (Oct 11/12)  that will pass well within the Moon's orbit at 26,000 miles above the Earth. It is similar in size to the Chelyabinsk asteroid that exploded over that city on 2/15/14 with over half a million tons of TNT explosive force.

This animation depicts the safe flyby of asteroid 2012 TC4 as it passes under Earth on Oct. 12, 2017.
This animation depicts the flyby of small asteroid 2012 TC4 as it passes under Earth. On Oct. 12 EDT (Oct. 11 PDT), 2012 TC4 will safely pass by Earth at a distance of approximately 26,000 miles (42,000 kilometers). Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA and others will be testing the international asteroid warning network to see how well observations are coordinated.

More info here.

Viewers can tune in on line at 7:59 PM EDT 10/11/17.

Sky Guy in VA

Tuesday, October 10, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

BIG DISCOVERY announced on 10/9/17 - Two teams of astronomers have discovered the missing normal matter in the Universe. This really is a big deal as you will read about in this article.

Sky Guy in VA

Friday, October 6, 2017

Wednesday, October 4, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

On October 5th brilliant Venus will be VERY close to dim Mars in the East about an hour before sunrise. Try to get a clear horizon and use binoculars to enhance your view. The pair will stay close through the weekend.

On October 5th at sunset the Full Harvest Moon will be making a grand appearance in the Northern Hemisphere. Look once again to the East after sunset to see the beautiful Harvest Moon.

Here's to Clear Skies for all....

Sky Guy in VA


Hey Space Placers!

Today is the 60th anniversary of Sputnik - the first spacecraft to orbit the Earth. Launched by the USSR it spawned the space race (and space age) which eventually led to America landing astronauts on the Moon.

The 1st citizen scientist project of the Space Age - Project Moonwatch - was started to monitor the orbit of Sputnik and other satellites to help refine the Earth's shape and orbit.

Now 60 years into the Space Age you can send your name to Mars on NASA's next mission to the Red Planet, InSight. You have until November 1st to sign up, so join me in doing so. 

As you can see I am a Frequent Flyer with NASA's missions!

Sky Guy in VA

Tuesday, October 3, 2017


Hey Space Placers!

Wow! What GREAT timing on my part ;-)

After yesterday's blog on gravitational waves Nobel Prizes were awarded to three of the pioneering scientists involved in the decade long search.
Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish and Kip Thorne are your 2017 Nobel Laureates in physics.
Credit: Nobel Media. III. N. Elmehed
Here is an article that gives a good perspective on gravitational waves and the awarding of the Nobel Prize to these three.

Sky Guy in VA

Monday, October 2, 2017

Gravitational Wave Observatories Detect 4th Black Hole Pair Merger

Hey Space Placers!

The 4th detection of gravitational waves from a black hole pair merging took place in August 2017. Unlike the previous three detections by two US based gravitational wave observatories in Washington state and Louisiana, this event was also seen by a new gravitational was observatory in Italy.

At some point we will have the detection of a neutron star merging event - maybe with a black hole or another neutron star. That will be something.......not that merging black holes are dull ;-)

Sky Guy in VA